Situated in the southernmost corner of China, Hainan Island at 18°10′～20°10′N latitude and 108°37′～111°03′E longitude takes the shape of a large oval pear. The length from northeast to southwest is about 290 kilometers, and the width from northwest to southeast is about 180 kilometers, with a total area of 33900 square kilometers. It is the second largest island in China, second only to Taiwan Island. It is bordered by Qiongzhou Strait and Guangdong in the north. In the west it is faced by Vietnam Democratic Commonwealth with the Northern Bay in between. It borders on the South China Sea in the east and lies in the opposite of Taiwan Province. It neighbors Philippines towards the east, Malaysia and Brunei towards the south, Indonesia towards the southwest, and Vietnam towards the west, where the South China Sea separates it from these countries.
Hainan Province’s jurisdiction area covers the reefs and marinetime area of Hainan Island, Xisha, Zhongsha and Nansha islands, thus it is the largest province in terms of jurisdiction coverage. The land of the whole province (mainly consists of Hainan Island, Xisha, Zhongsha, and Nansha Islands) occupies a total area of 35400 square kilometers, and the surrounding sea area totals 15900 square kilometers.
The middle of the island is high while the rest is low, thus the Hainan Island takes the shape of mountainous vault where the Five Fingers Mountain (Wuzhishan) and the Parrot Mountain range are the hunch part, gradually descending outwards from the center. The island is made up of by mountainous regions, rugged hills, terraces, and plains with clear stratified physiognomy in the shape of loop. Mountainous regions and hills take up 38.7% of the whole island, and are the main features of physiognomy in the island. Mostly the coasts are accumulated from eroded volcano basalt in the terraces, evolved from low vale to small bay or accumulated coasts, and layered coasts formed by sand banks. Tropical mangrove and coral reef coasts feature the coastal ecosystem.
Hainan Province has vast jurisdiction area and abundant natural resources, so it has quite a lot of potentials to be developed regarding its economy. For the past two decades, Hannan province sticks to the policy of reform and opening up to the outside world, advocating “full-scale tourism” through the joint efforts of all citizens of the province, thus promoting the fast sustained and fast development of tourism. Foreign currency earnings from tourism are about 0.6 billion dollars, and home earnings total 40 billion RMB.
Hainan Province has a population of over 7 million, among which Han nationality is the overwhelming majority while the rest are 37 minority nationalities. The Li and Miao minority nationalities comprise a large proportion of the minority population.
Soil Hainan Province is the largest “tropical treasure zone” in China, with 3.5354 hektares’ arable land, which takes up 42.5% of the total arable land in the tropical area all over the country.
Flora Hainan lies in the tropical rain forest zone and tropical sub rain forest, so there are various types of plants and the plants grow fast. To date, there are over 4000 plants in the island, occupying one seventh of all types of plants throughout the whole country and of which over 630 are only found in Hainan. Hainan also has the 17 species of the first type, which has the most categories and types among the 80 species of phanerogams in the tropical region.
Fauna There are 567 species of vertebrate ashore in Hainan Province, of which there are 37 amphibians (11 are only found in Hainan, and 8 are listed among national special animals). Hainan also has water deer, macaque, black bear and clouds-leopard as well as black-coronet gibbon and slope-deer that are rarely found in the world.
Tourist resources Hainan has rich tourist resources with its own unique specialties. The views along coastline are of different kinds and varieties. The mountains and their peaks link with one another, whose shape is fantastic and overall view majestic. Great rivers are waterfalls and reservoirs also provide pretty scenery. Rivers like Nandu River, Changhua River, Wanquan River coexist with shoals and ponds. The rivers are meandering and the water in them is clear, so are favorable for sightseeing.
The capital city is Haikou. Its jurisdiction covers cities like Sanya, Wenchang, Qionghai,Wanning, Wuzhishan, Dongdang, Zhanzhou and others, counties like Lingao, 8 Li and Miao minority autonomous counties, and a office handling affairs concerning Xisha, Nansha and Zhongsha islands.