Uygur Autonomous Region lies in the northwest of China. Covering an area of over 1.66 million square kilometers, it is China's largest province, making up one-sixth of the entire Chinese territory. It is located in the hinterland of Asia-European Continent and with the total boarder of about 5,600 odd kilometers. Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region borders Russia, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Mongolia, India, and Afghanistan. It used to be an important intersection of the famous "Silk Road", and now has developed to be a critical component of the second "Asian-European Content Bridge" with strategic importance.
The terrain of Xinjiang can be summarized as "Three Mountains Embosoming Two Basins". On the northern border of Xinjiang stand the Altay Mountains, on the southern border is the Kunlun Mountain Range, and in the middle part of the region stretch the enormous Tianshan Mountains. The Junggar Basin lies between Altay Mountains and Tianshan Mountains covering about 200,000 square kilometers. Covering an area of approximately 530,000 square Kilometers, the Tarim Basin sits between Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains; in the central part of the basin is China largest moving desert-Takla Makan Desert, which boasts a area of 330,000 square kilometers and is the second, largest moving desert in the world.
With a total length of about 2100 kilometers, Tarim River is the longest inland river in China. The Turpan Basin lies in East Xinjiang and has the lowest altitude in China and a depth of 154 meters at rock bottom. Xinjiang enjoys a typical continental climate of temperate zone with an annual precipitation of over 100 millimeters.
Xinjiang is endowed with unique water, soil and thermal resources, and its annual sunlight is 2600 to 3400 hours, second only to Xizang Province. Thanks to the sunshine, amiable climate and clear difference in temperature between daytime and evening time, crops in Xinjiang enjoys fast growth.
Xinjiang's range special local and agricultural products are extensive and many of which are well known at home and abroad.Cotton, hops, safflower, medlar, tomato, cantaloupe, grape wine, Fragrant Pears, and megranate are just some of the many. Xinjiang produces 40% of China's total production of cotton, 70% of its hops, 50% of its medlar, and 60% its safflower.
Xinjiang boasts of rich and colorful tourist resources characterized by unique natural landscapes, varied climate and long history. The co-existence of the cool Heavenly Lake and hot Turpan, as well as the expansive desert and wide oasis constitute the rough and natural landscape in Xinjiang. There are more than 1000 wild species, many of which are rare plants and animals. To date 23 nature reserves have been established and four of them are nationally designated ones. The Xinjiang owes its popularity to the many tourist attractions like the Heavenly Lake, the Hanas Lake, Bosteng Lake, Sailimu Lake and Bayinbluke Prairie, A number of historical and cultural relics in Xinjiang are also well known. For instance, the Jiaohe ruins, Gaochang ruins, Loulan Site and Kizil Thousand Buddha Grottoes, and so on. Xinjiang is reputed as the "Home of Singing and Dancing" for its unique folk culture and custom.
Area: over 160 square kilometers
Population: 18.4626 million people from 47 ethnic groups living in concentrated communities; Xinjiang Uygur ethnic minority, renowned as the "window of Chinese ethnic groups", constitutes the majority population with 8.25 million.